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In vivo optogenetics

Difficulty level

This lecture provides an introduction to optogenetics, a biological technique to control the activity of neurons or other cell types with light.

Topics covered in this lesson
  • Objectives of optogenetics
  • Challenges of manipulating neural circuits (0:34)
  • Methods to change activity in genetically identified neurons (9:17)
  • Types of opsins used in optogenetics (12:37)
  • Illumination of channelrhodopsin in epressed in the motor cortex (16:49)
  • Expression of halorhodopsin in human photoreceptors (20:19)
  • Studies enabled by optogenetics (21:05)
  • Limitations of optogenetics (29:03)
  • Methods to overcome the limitations of optogenetics (32:54)
  • Two-photon optogenetics (34:14)
  • How activity in neural circuits gives rise to perception and action (35:12)
  • Combining two-photon calcium imaging and spatial light modulator (SLM)-based two-photon optogenetics (36:10)